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Fluorescent mineral photography is a challenge. People (and cameras) usually take pictures of well-lit scenes and rarely have to worry about overexposing an image. When photographing fluorescent minerals the game is changed dramatically. The camera now has to capture vividly glowing, saturated colors in a dark room. Cameras just aren't designed to do this. Some handle it better than others, but most must be tweaked to produce an acceptable image.
Shooting in the dark usually requires long time-exposures of a widely variable subject. Many specimens have multiple minerals fluorescing different colors - some much brighter than others. For example, one of the hardest pieces to photograph is the classic combination of calcite, willemite, hardystonite, and esperite. The esperite ( a bright yellow fluorescing mineral) often appears green, the willemite appears white (a bright green in reality), while the calcite might be captured as its normal orange, and the dark blue/purple fluorescing hardystonite might not even be visible. But with careful attention to camera settings, a few tricks (and lots of hair pulling) an acceptable shot can be taken.
Listed below are some of the most important considerations for successful fluorescent mineral photography, as well as many of the problems people face when first shooting “glow rocks”:
Focus and focal length – many cameras, especially point-and-click, have difficulties focusing in low light situations. This can usually be solved by “locking in” the focus in white light, then turning off the lights while maintaining the focus (every camera does this a little different – consult your manual).
An additional problem with focus is the distance from the lens to the subject. It may be tempting to fill the viewfinder/view screen with the image but remember that many cameras/lenses have a minimum focal length of around 12” or more (assuming you’re not using a macro lens). If you move the rock too close to the lens no amount of focus will work and your pics will be blurry. Take the shot at a distance and crop the photo using image editing software.
Auto or Manual – I choose manual, always. Shooting in auto mode may seem a good choice, but remember that your camera is designed to take pictures of well-lit subjects. It is not designed to take pics of glowing rocks. Using manual you have full control of the time exposure, the iso, the aperture, and even the white balance. Invariably, photos taken using auto will have overexposed areas.
ISO – I use iso100. The resulting pic has more detail and minimum graininess. But of course my exposures are much longer (around 2 sec to 8 sec usually), thus requiring a tripod and some method of triggering the camera without shaking it (I use my computer to control the camera – called tethered shooting; Canon and Nikon DSLR cameras both allow this).
You can set your iso higher and take pics with much shorter exposures (if your camera allows it), sometimes even almost (but not quite) getting away without a tripod. But the resulting pic will usually be of poor quality. I only use high iso’s when shooting phosphorescent pics.
Shutter control – A tripod is an absolute for blur-free photos when shooting long time-exposures, with minimal iso noise. Some cameras have an optional attachment allowing shutter release without touching the camera. Most have the ability to trigger a shot and the shutter opens a few seconds later (used to allow you time to join the picture in a group shot) – a neat trick to take a fluorescent pic without the camera moving. Most DSLRs have an option that allows the camera’s mirror to settle before the shutter is opened, reducing vibration from the mirror movement. If you shoot lots of fluorescent pics, tethered shooting is the only way to go.
Camera stability – Both the specimen being photographed and the camera must be on a vibration-free setting. Often our UV lights will have fans and if mounted on the same table as the camera and rock, you might see a “softness” in you photos from the minute blur cause by the fan vibration. Of course same goes for vibrations from the floor, pets and people walking around.
White Balance – I set mine to “auto”. I shoot in RAW format which allows me to adjust the picture (“develop it”) and compensate for the “blue bleed” caused by our UV lamps – often non-fluorescent white areas of the specimen (and other areas too) will appear blue/purple from visible light leaking out of our UV lamps. If your camera doesn’t have RAW, then set your white balance to the highest setting (usually), or “cloudy” (but even better – get a camera that produces RAW files). The white balance is probably the best tool used to get rid of the dreaded “blue bleed” (other than adequate UV lighting).
F-Stop – If you can set this, play around with it. Each lens has a “sweet spot” – mine works best around f11. I prefer to get the most depth of field I can so the whole rock is in focus. Remember, the smaller your aperture, the longer your exposure.
Filters – I use a high quality UV filter. Some camera lenses will fluoresce upon exposure to UV causing foggy/blue cast pictures. A good UV filter prevents this (just make sure the UV filter does not fluoresce – some do).
UV Lighting – Take a look at a white light photographer’s studio; it’s filled with lighting. We need the same thing – the more lights, the brighter your subject. Of course placement matters, and can be difficult. But I generally go for overkill in lighting. I also find the brighter the UV light, the less “blue bleed”. Bright UV causes a bright fluorescence and the camera doesn’t have to leave its shutter open for very long – less visible blue gets in.
Today’s shortwave lights almost all have Hoya U-325c filters; the best in the industry. They transmit the maximum UV while minimizing the visible blue bleed. Longwave lights are a different story – perhaps the most common is the blacklight BLB (the blue fluorescent lights used to light up psychedelic posters). These are not satisfactory for taking LW photos; they simply put out too much blue light. I use 365nm LEDs from Nichia for my LW pics. Others use lighting with Hoya filters or wood’s glass filters.
Some people use a handheld UV lamp to “paint” the rock with light. Often a large rock cannot be illuminated sufficiently with a small hand lamp so the lamp is waved over the rock while the camera shutter is open, painting every nook and cranny with UV light, insuring a full exposure. Obviously this takes a little experimentation and great care to not move/bump the specimen or the camera.
I shoot a lot of rocks for my Ebay postings. I have a light cabinet with UV lights surrounding the specimen, and enclosed on all sides. Thus I don’t have to seal myself inside a dark room. Some folks commandeer bedrooms with darkout curtains, or even bathrooms with no windows. I know one person who uses the toilet seat cover as the base for his specimens; it produces a subtle dark blue background – very pleasing (but I bet he cleans it real good before each photo sesseion).
Shooting RAW – I mentioned this above, but it deserves its own bullet. RAW allows you to “develop” the picture in software by adjusting brightness, saturation, white balance, etc until the resulting image matches your specimen to the best of your ability. Most cameras have special software that allows you to develop their RAW files. Photoshop and Photoshop Elements both support RAW files. If you want total control over your image, and the most exacting match to reality, RAW is the way to go.
Monitor Adjustment – Figure out some way to calibrate the brightness, contrast, and color on your monitor. There are web sites that help you do this (http://www.lagom.nl/lcd-test/) to a degree (not the best way to do it, but better than nothing) and there are hardware solutions for perfect results (I use the Spyder line of products).
If you take pics with a monitor that is adjusted too dim, the resulting pics will be overexposed, and vice versa for monitors set too bright. You have no control how your viewer will adjust his/her monitor, but you can at least make sure yours is adjusted properly. If you intend to print/publish the images, color matching is critical and you should probably invest in some calibration hardware.
Cleanliness – dust and lint are our enemies. White light photographers don’t have to worry about tiny hairs and dust, but under UV light they glow bright blue and ruin a photo. Wash your specimen, brush it, or blow it off – but clean it up for a more professional pic. And make sure you have a brush handy to brush away the crumbs from the previous specimen.
Phosphorescent pics – not as hard as it seems. I set my f-stop to f3.5, my iso to 800, and work out the timing of clicking the shutter and turning off my UV lights. The resulting pic is usually grainy, but gives a good representation of the phosphorescence. A DSLR usually has a delayed shutter/mirror lockup that allows you to adjust your timing based on the noises coming from the camera – play around with it; not really as hard as you might think.
Backgrounds – I prefer a black background. I have seen folks use bright fluorescent backgrounds (hate ‘em) and dimly fluorescent backgrounds (can be very nice). Some black construction paper will have a dull fluorescence and can make an interesting background. I have shot on brushed aluminum to get a reflection of the piece with interesting results. But in the end, I always come back to the solid black background.
HDR – High Dynamic Range – Some newer cameras (and even phones) have HDR where the camera will take several images and average them together to even out the over-exposed spots and the dim spots. Very helpful, but I prefer doing this manually for best results (I take several photos at different exposures and merge them together in Photoshop – the only way to accurately show esperite mixed with willemite/calcite). Obviously requires some Photoshop skills.
Photoshop – This bears mentioning. PS is a tool to help you match your picture to reality as best you can. You must be very careful not to exaggerate or change the image. Just make sure it’s real.
Hard rocks – not the café! Some specimens are a lot harder than others. The classic “hard piece” is calcite/willemite/esperite/hardystonite as already mentioned – but any piece that has a couple of bright minerals along with a dim one will be difficult. Usually the best approach is to shoot a couple of images – one exposed for the bright minerals and the other exposed for the dim minerals (HDR or manual HDR). But you may not have photoshop, or a camera that takes HDR pics. In that case your best bet is to expose the bright minerals properly and “explain” the dimmer minerals. Note that many of the newer smartphones have built in HDR and with a little work can be prodded into taking a half-way decent pic.
There are many more things to worry about with fluorescent mineral photography – beyond the scope of this quick and dirty “how to”. Thermal considerations for your camera, CCD noise, iso and highlight recovery, many different software packages that will make your job easier. Dig in and do some Googling – you never know what you might learn!
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